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This book introduces the reader to the concepts and instrumentation that emerge in an experimental approach to the photoemission process. The basic elements implemented for the technique are discussed and the geometry of the instrumentation is explained. This book covers each of the features that have been observed in the X-ray photoemission spectra and provides the tools necessary for their understanding and correct identification. Charging effects are covered in the penultimate chapter with the final chapter bringing closure to the basic uses of the X-ray photoemission process, as well as guiding the reader through some of the most popular applications used in current research.